Upsert data to graph

This endpoint upserts vertices and/or edges into a graph. To upsert means that if a vertex or edge does not exist, it is inserted, and if it does exist, it is updated.

Upserting vertices or edges require the user to have sufficient privileges. See Access Control Model in TigerGraph.

Endpoint URL

POST /graph/{graph_name}

Parameters

The following table describes the URL parameters for the endpoint.

Name Required Description

ack

No

The value of this parameter can either be "all" or "none".

  • "all": request will return after all GPE instances have acknowledged the POST request

  • "none": request will return immediately after RESTPP processed the POST request.

Default value is "none".

new_vertex_only

No

If new_vertex_only is set to true, the request will only insert new vertices and not update existing ones. Default value is false.

update_vertex_only

No

If update_vertex_only is set to true, the request will only update existing vertices and not insert new vertices.

atomic_post

No

This parameter is deprecated. Please use the gsql-atomic-level header instead.

If atomic_post is set to true, the request becomes an atomic transaction - either all updates are successful or no updates are successful. Default value is false.

vertex_must_exist

No

If the value is true, the request will only insert an edge if both the FROM and TO vertices of the edge already exist. If the value is false, the request will always insert new edges, and create the necessary vertices with default values for their attributes.

This parameter does not affect vertices. Default value is false.

source_vertex_must_exist

No

If the value is true, the request will only insert an edge if the FROM vertex of the edge already exists. If the value is false, the request will always insert new edges, and create the necessary vertices with default values for their attributes.

This parameter does not affect vertices. For non-directed edges, the behavior of this parameter is identical to vertex_must_exist. Default value is false.

This parameter is mutually exclusive with the general vertex_must_exist parameter and will return an error if both are used.

target_vertex_must_exist

No

If the value is true, the request will only insert an edge if the TO vertex of the edge already exists. If the value is false, the request will always insert new edges, and create the necessary vertices with default values for their attributes.

This parameter does not affect vertices. For non-directed edges, the behavior of this parameter is identical to vertex_must_exist. Default value is false.

This parameter is mutually exclusive with the general vertex_must_exist parameter and will return an error if both are used.

Response

The response is the number of vertices and edges that were accepted. Additionally, if new_vertex_only is true, the response will include two more fields:

  • skipped_vertices: the number of vertices in the input data which already existed in the graph

  • vertices_already_exist: the id and type of the input vertices which were skipped

If vertex_must_exist is true, the response will include two more fields:

  • skipped_edges: the number of edges in the input data rejected because of missing endpoint vertices

  • miss_vertices: the id and type of the endpoint vertices which were missing

The example file add_id6.json (shown in the Request Body section) upserts one User vertex with id = "id6", one Liked edge, and one Liked_By edge. The Liked edge is from "id1 " to "id6"; the Liked_By _edge is from "id6" to _"id1".

Request body

The payload data should be in JSON according to the schema shown below:

Request body schema
{
    "vertices": {
       "<vertex_type>": {
          "<vertex_id>": {
             "<attribute>": {
                "value": <value>,
                "op": <opcode>
             }
          }
       }
    },
    "edges": {
       "<source_vertex_type>": {
          "<source_vertex_id>": {
             "<edge_type>": {
                "<target_vertex_type>": {
                   "<target_vertex_id>": {
                      "<attribute>": {
                         "value": <value>,
                         "op": <opcode>
                      }
                   }
                }
             }
          }
       }
    }
}

The fields in angle brackets (<>) are placeholder names or values, to be replaced with actual values. The keys in angle parentheses, such as <vertex_type>, can be repeated to form a list of items. The keys which are not in angle brackets are exact texts that must be used as they are. The nested hierarchy means that vertices are grouped by type. Edges, on the other hand, are first grouped by source vertex type, then vertex ID, then edge type.

Examples

The first example below shows two User vertices having an attribute called age:

Upsert Example Data 1: Two User vertices
{
  "vertices": {
    "User": {
      "id6": {
        "age": {
           "value": 30
         }
      },
      "id1": {
        "age": {
           "value": 22
         }
      }
    }
  }
}

The second example starts with one User vertex. Since id6 contains no attributes, it will remain the same it if already exists. If it doesn’t yet exist, the request will create a vertex with ID id6 with default attribute values. Then two edges are created: a Liked edge from id1 to id6, and then a Liked_By edge from id6 to id1.

Upsert Example Data 2:add_id6.json
{
 "vertices": {
    "User": {
      "id6": {
      }
    }
  },
  "edges": {
    "User":{
      "id1": {
        "Liked": {
          "User": {
            "id6" : {
              "weight" : {
                "value": 5.0
              }
            }
          }
        }
      },
      "id6": {
        "Liked_By": {
          "User": {
            "id1" : {
              "weight" : {
                "value": 1.0
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

Follow the instructions in the Introduction section to format advanced data types.

For example, the following payload is used to upsert two User vertices with an attribute coordinates of type LIST and an attribute measurements of type MAP:

{
 "vertices": {
    "User": {
      "id4": {
        "coordinates": {
           "value": [51.3345, -7.2233]
         },
        "measurements": {
           "value": {
             "keyList": ["chest", "waist", "hip"]
             "valueList": [35, 30, 35]
           }
         }
      },
      "id5": {
        "coordinates": {
           "value": [31.3245, -17.3292]
         },
        "measurements": {
           "value": {
             "keyList": ["chest", "waist", "hip"]
             "valueList": [39, 35, 41]
           }
         }
      }
    }
  }
}

Operation codes

Each attribute value may be accompanied by an operation (op) code, which provides very sophisticated schemes for data update or insertion:

Type op Meaning

1

"ignore_if_exists" or "~"

If the vertex/edge does not exist, use the payload value to initialize the attribute; but if the vertex/edge already exists, do not change this attribute.

2

"add" or "+"

Add the payload value to the existing value.

3

"and" or "&"

Update to the logical AND of the payload value and the existing value.

4

"or" or "|"

Update to the logical OR of the payload value and the existing value.

5

"max" or ">"

Update to the higher value between the payload value and the existing value.

6

"min" or "<"

Update to the lower value between the payload value and the existing value.

If an attribute is not given in the payload, the attribute stays unchanged if the vertex/edge already exists, or if the vertex/edge does not exist, a new vertex/edge is created and assigned the default value for that data type. The default value is 0 for int/uint, 0.0 for float/double, and ""(empty string) for string.

Upserting vertices with composite keys

If your vertex has composite keys, separate the attributes that make up the composite key with a comma (,) in the same order as they are defined in the schema.

For example, suppose we have the following vertex definition:

CREATE VERTEX Composite_Person(id UINT, name STRING, age UINT, primary key (name, id))
CREATE VERTEX Composite_Movie (id UINT, title STRING, country STRING, year UINT, PRIMARY KEY (title,year,id))
CREATE DIRECTED EDGE Composite_Roles (from Composite_Person,to Composite_Movie, role STRING)
CREATE GRAPH Person_Movie(Composite_Person, Composite_Movie, Composite_Roles)

The following requests upserts two vertices with the defined composite key, as well as an edge of the type Composite_Roles between Bob, 123 and Harry Potter, 1990, 1337:

curl -X POST "localhost:9000/graph/Person_Movie" -d '
{
  "vertices": {
    "Composite_Person":{
      "Bob,123":{
        "name":{"value":"Bob"},
        "id":{"value":123},
        "age":{"value":25}
      },
      "Tom,456":{
        "name":{"value":"Tom"},
        "id":{"value":456},
        "age":{"value":47}
      }
    }
  },
  "edges":{
    "Composite_Person":{
      "Bob,123":{
        "Composite_Roles":{
          "Composite_Movie":{
            "Harry Potter,1990,1337":{
              "role":{
                "value":"Wizard"
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}
'

Upserting edges with discriminators

Some edge types are defined with discriminators, which allow multiple instances of the same edge type between two vertices.

To upsert an edge that was defined with a discriminator, insert them as a regular edge. However, the following rules apply:

  • You cannot leave off discriminator attributes when inserting an edge whose type was defined with discriminator attributes.

  • If you are updating an existing edge, you cannot update the attributes that are defined as part of the edge type discriminator.

For example, if you have the following edge type definition:

CREATE DIRECTED EDGE Study_At(From Person, To University, DISCRIMINATOR(class_year INT, class_month INT), major STRING))

When inserting an edge of type Study_AT, you cannot omit the class_year attribute or the class_month attribute. You cannot update these two attributes either.

Valid data types

The RESTPP server validates the request before updating the values. The following schema violations will cause the entire request to fail and no change will be made to a graph:

  • For vertex upsert

    • Invalid vertex type

    • Invalid attribute data type

  • For edge upsert:

    • Invalid source vertex type

    • Invalid edge type

    • Invalid target vertex type

    • Invalid attribute data type.

If an invalid attribute name is given, it is ignored.

Example

The following example submits an upsert request by using the payload data stored in add_id6.json.

curl -X POST --data-binary @add_id6.json "http://localhost:9000/graph"

{"accepted_vertices":1,"accepted_edges":2}

If we set the value of vertex_must_exist parameter to true, the endpoint will only insert edges whose endpoint vertices both exist. This includes the vertices being inserted in the same request. Therefore, inserting the content of add_id6.json to an empty graph would cause the edges to be rejected:

curl -X POST --data-binary @add_id6.json "http://localhost:9000/graph?vertex_must_exist=true"

{
  "version": {
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2",
    "schema": 0
  },
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "results": [
    {
      "accepted_vertices": 1,
      "accepted_edges": 0,
      "skipped_edges": 2,
      "edge_vertices_not_exist": [
        {
          "v_type": "User",
          "v_id": "id1"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "code": "REST-0003"
}

Atomic upsert transaction

By default, the POST /graph/{graph_name} endpoint is not atomic. If something goes wrong during the process of the request, the request data can be partially consumed by the database.

You can append a request header gsql-atomic-level to the request to set the request’s atomicity level. The header parameter accepts the following values:

  • atomic: The request is an atomic transaction. An atomic transaction means that updates to the database contained in the request are all-or-nothing: either all changes are successful, or none is successful.

  • nonatomic: The request is not atomic. This is the default behavior of the endpoint.

For example, suppose we have the following request to upsert two vertices:

  • Request

  • Request body

curl --data-binary @vertices.json http://localhost:9000/graph/social

Content of vertices.json is:

{
 "vertices": {
    "person": {
      "Velma": {
        "age": {
           "value": 30
         }
      },
      "Kelly": {
        "age": {
           "value": 22
         }
      }
    }
  }
}

With the request above, if the vertex Kelly fails to be upserted due to a machine failure, it is still possible that the vertex Velma is upserted to the database.

If you add the gsql-atomic-level header to the request URL and set its value to atomic, the request becomes atomic and if any part of the request body fails to be upserted, nothing will be upserted:

# This is an atomic request
curl -X POST -H 'gsql-atomic-level:atomic' --data-binary @vertices.json http://localhost:9000/graph/social