SELECT Statement

This page discusses the SELECT statement in GSQL Syntax V2, which is the default syntax for TigerGraph version 3.5 and above. To learn about the SELECT statement in the legacy V1 syntax, see SELECT Statement (Syntax V1)

Overview

The SELECT statement is an assignment statement with a SELECT block on the right-hand side.

The SELECT block uses a path pattern to select some of the graph’s vertices and edges. There are a number of optional clauses that define and/or refine the selection by constraining the vertex or edge set or the result set. The final output of a query is either a vertex set known as the result set or a table.

There is a maximum size limit of 2 GB for the result set of a SELECT block. If the result of the SELECT block is larger than 2 GB, the system will return no data. No error message is produced.

EBNF for GSQL Select Statement
gsqlSelectBlock := gsqlSelectClause
               fromClause
               [sampleClause]
               [whereClause]
               [accumClause]
               [postAccumClause]*
               [havingClause]
               [orderClause]
               [limitClause]

gsqlSelectClause := vertexSetName "=" SELECT vertexAlias

The initial clause is the SELECT clause: SELECT vertexAlias. Its purpose is to specify which set of vertices from the FROM clause is to become the output.

The SELECT clause may contain only one item: a vertex alias defined in the FROM clause. The vertex alias may be from anywhere in a multi-hop pattern, not only an endpoint.

The FROM clause defines a path pattern to traverse in the graph, and each vertex in the path pattern can be given a vertex alias. Thus, the SELECT clause picks the set of vertices at one of these points in the pattern — the source vertices, the target vertices, or those from an interior point in a multi-hop path — to be the output vertices.

The SELECT block has many optional clauses, which fit together in a logical flow. Overall, the SELECT block starts from a source set of vertices and returns a result set that is either a subset of the source vertices or a subset of their neighboring vertices. Along the way, computations can be performed on the selected vertices and edges.

FROM

The FROM clause describes either a single hop or a multi-hop path pattern. Path patterns also have many other options for finer control and greater flexibility.

FROM clause
fromClause := FROM ( pathPattern ["," pathPattern]*)

A hop or step consists of going from a starting set of vertices, crossing over a set of their edges, to an ending set of vertices.

Path pattern

A path pattern specifies sets of vertex types and how they are connected by edge types.

A path pattern starts with a source vertex set, traverses through specified path edge patterns to another step vertex set. This is called a hop. From the other step vertex set, it can perform multiple hops and traverse to other step vertex sets.

Notice that a path pattern can be just a single source vertex set; the subsequent path edge pattern and step vertex sets are optional.

EBNF for path pattern
pathPattern :=  sourceVertexSet ["-" "(" pathEdgePattern ")" "-" stepVertexSet]*

Source vertex set

The source vertex set is the vertex set from which a path pattern starts. A source vertex set can be denoted by one of the following:

  • _ or ANY, or omitted. If the source vertex type is omitted, you must give the source vertex set an alias.

  • Vertex type

  • A vertex set variable

Optionally, you can give a source vertex set an alias by appending the alias after a colon:. Although declaring an alias is optional, it is strongly recommended that you declare them. In the later clauses of the SELECT block , you can only refer to vertex sets in the FROM clause by their aliases.

EBNF for source vertex set
sourceVertexSet := [sourceVertexTypes] [":" vertexAlias]
sourceVertexTypes := "_" | ANY | "(" sourceVertexSetType ["|" sourceVertexSetType]* ")"
sourceVertexSetType := vertexType | vertexSetVariableName

Belows are a few examples of valid source vertex sets in SELECT statements:

  • Vertex type

  • Any type

  • Vertex set

Result = SELECT src
    FROM Person:src -(<Likes_REVERSE)- (Comment|Post):tgt (1)
    WHERE src.first_name == "Viktor" AND src.last_name == "Akhiezer"
    ACCUM CASE
        WHEN tgt.type == "Comment" THEN
            src.@comment_cnt += 1
        WHEN tgt.type == "Post" THEN
            src.@post_cnt += 1
        END;
1 Person is a vertex type. (Comment | POST) combines two vertex types.

You can use _ or ANY to represent any vertex types. You can also choose to omit the step vertex type altogether to represent any vertex type. If you choose to omit the type, you must give the step vertex set an alias.

Result = SELECT tgt
    FROM :s -(<Likes)- Person:tgt
    WHERE tgt.first_name == "Viktor" AND tgt.last_name == "Akhiezer"

A source vertex set can also be represented by a vertex set variable.

CREATE QUERY count_friends_of_2 (VERTEX<Person> seed) FOR GRAPH Friend_Net {
    SumAccum<INT> @@num_friends = 0;
    seed_set = { seed };
    friends = SELECT v FROM seed_set:s -((Friend | Coworker):e)- :v
        ACCUM @@num_friends +=1;
    PRINT @@num_friends;
}

Step vertex set

A vertex set that represents a step in a path pattern. Compared with source vertex set, step vertex sets have more flexibility in how they are denoted. A step vertex set can be denoted by one of the following:

  • _ or ANY, or omitted. If the step vertex type is omitted, you must give the step vertex set an alias.

  • Vertex type

  • A vertex set variable

  • A global accumulator

Optionally, you can give a source vertex set an alias by appending the alias after a colon:. Although declaring an alias is optional, TigerGraph strongly suggests that you declare them. In the later clauses of the SELECT block , you can only refer to vertex sets in the FROM clause by their aliases.

EBNF for step vertex set
stepVertexSet := [stepVertexTypes] [":" vertexAlias]
stepVertexTypes := atomicVertexType | "(" vertexSetType ["|" vertexSetType]* ")"
atomicVertexType := "_" | ANY | vertexSetType
vertexSetType := vertexType | vertexSetVariableName | globalAccumName

Belows are a few examples of valid step vertex sets in SELECT statements:

  • Vertex type

  • Any type

  • Vertex set

  • Global accumulator

Result = SELECT tgt
    FROM Person:tgt -(<Likes_REVERSE)- (Comment|Post):src (1)
    WHERE tgt.firstName == "Viktor" AND tgt.lastName == "Akhiezer"
    ACCUM CASE
        WHEN src.type == "Comment" THEN
            tgt.@commentCnt += 1
        WHEN src.type == "Post" THEN
            tgt.@postCnt += 1
        END;
1 Person is a vertex type. (Comment | POST) combines two vertex types.

You can use _ or ANY to represent any vertex types. You can also choose to omit the step vertex type altogether to represent any vertex type. If you choose to omit the type, you must give the step vertex set an alias.

Result = SELECT s
    FROM Person:s -(Likes>)- :tgt
    WHERE s.first_name == "Viktor" AND s.last_name == "Akhiezer"

A step vertex set can also be represented by a vertex set variable.

CREATE QUERY count_friends_of_2 (VERTEX<Person> seed) FOR GRAPH Friend_Net
{
    SumAccum<INT> @@num_friends = 0;
    seed_set = { seed };
    friends = SELECT v FROM :s -((Friend | Coworker):e)- seed_set:v
      ACCUM @@num_friends +=1;
    PRINT @@num_friends;
}

A step vertex set can be represented by a global accumulator of strings (the strings are vertex types). The accumulator must be of type SetAccum, BagAccum or ListAccum.

CREATE QUERY count_friends_of_2(STRING target_type) FOR GRAPH Friend_Net {
    SumAccum<INT> @@num_friends = 0;
    SetAccum<STRING> @@target_set;
    @@target_set += target_type;
    friends = SELECT s FROM :s -((Friend | Coworker):e)- @@target_set:v
      ACCUM @@num_friends +=1;
    PRINT @@num_friends;
}

Path edge pattern

The path edge pattern represents the relationship between a source vertex set to a step vertex set or from a step vertex set to the next step vertex set.

EBNF for path edge pattern
pathEdgePattern := atomicEdgePattern
                 | "(" pathEdgePattern ")"
                 | pathEdgePattern "." pathEdgePattern
                 | disjPattern
                 | starPattern

atomicEdgePattern  := atomicEdgeType
        	        | atomicEdgeType ">"
        	        | "<" atomicEdgeType

atomicEdgeType := "_" | ANY | edgeSetType

disjPattern := atomicEdgePattern ("|" atomicEdgePattern)*

starPattern := ([atomicEdgePattern] | "(" disjPattern ")") "*" [starBounds]

starBounds := CONST_INT ".." CONST_INT
            | CONST_INT ".."
            | ".." CONST_INT
            | CONST_INT

A path edge pattern can represent one hop or repeated hops. A path edge pattern is denoted by -()-, where the relationship between vertex sets is specified between the parentheses.

Atomic edge pattern

The most basic form for a path edge pattern is an atomic edge pattern. An atomic edge pattern can be one of the following:

  • _ or ANY.

  • An edge type.

  • A string parameter. The value of the parameter must be an edge type and can be provided at runtime. You do not need to specify a direction when using a string parameter to specify the edge type.

  • A global SetAccum accumulator of strings. Each string is the name of an edge type.

If the edge is directed, an atomic edge pattern has either a left pointer < on the left or a right pointer > on the right to indicate edge direction. If the edge is undirected, the atomic edge pattern does not have a pointer. Suppose we have 3 edge types or parameters called A, B, C.

  • A> is a rightward facing A edge

  • <B is a leftward facing B edge

  • C is an undirected C edge. If C is actually a directed edge type, then there is no match.

For example:

  • -(STUDY_AT>)- refers to forward traversal of the directed edge type STUDY_AT.

  • -(<STUDY_AT)- refers to backward traversal of the directed edge type STUDY_AT.

    • This means that the right side of -(<STUDY_AT)- is expected to have the same type as the left side of -(STUDY_AT>)-.

  • -(KNOWS)- refers to forward traversal of the undirected KNOWS.

  • -(_>)- refers to forward traversal of any directed edge types.

  • -(_)- refers to forward traversal of any undirected edge types.

  • -(<_)- refers to backward traversal of any directed edge types.

Disjunction pattern

Pattern disjunction allows a path edge pattern to indicate an OR relationship between two or more atomic patterns. If an edge matches any of the atomic patterns, the edge matches the path edge pattern.

EBNF for disjunction pattern
disjPattern := atomicEdgePattern ("|" atomicEdgePattern)*

For example:

  • -(KNOWS|STUDY_AT>)- refers to traversing an undirected KNOWS edge or a directed STUDY_AT edge.

  • -(KNOWS|_>)- refers to traversing an undirected KNOWS edge or any directed edge from left to right.

Pattern repetition

The Kleene star* and min..max range specifiers repeat an edge pattern for a specified number of times. The range specifiers must be integers and must be constants. See Repeating a 1-Hop Pattern for a tutorial on how to use pattern repetition in a path edge pattern.

EBNF for star pattern
starPattern := ([atomicEdgePattern] | "(" disjPattern ")") "*" [starBounds]

starBounds := CONST_INT ".." CONST_INT
            | CONST_INT ".."
            | ".." CONST_INT
            | CONST_INT
  • Add * to the end of a pattern to have the star pattern match all paths where the edge pattern occurs one or more times.

    • For example, Person:s - (Friendship*) - Person matches all paths between two Person vertices connected by any number of Friendship edges.

    • The vertices in the middle do not need to be Person vertices. For example, a path like person1 -(Friendship)- dog1 - (Friendship) - person2 matches the star pattern.

  • Add * to the end of a pattern, and then a number after the star to have the star pattern match paths where the edge pattern occurs for the specified number of times.

    • For example, Person:s - (Friendship*2) - Person matches all paths between two Person vertices connected by exactly two Friendship edges. The vertices in the middle do not need to be Person vertices.

  • Add * to the end of a pattern, and then a range after the star (*x..y) to have the star pattern match all paths where the edge pattern occurs as many times as within the specified range.

    • For example, Employee:s - (Works_For>*2..4) - Employee matches all paths between two Employee vertices with 2 - 4 right-directed Works_For edges. The vertices in the middle do not need to be Person vertices.

Pattern concatenation

The dot operator. means concatenate the two edge patterns into one. The vertex joining the two edges is omitted from the syntax. The dot operator is a shorthand, when you don’t care about the type of that intermediate vertex. (A>.<B.C) means a series of 3 edges, having the specified types and directions.

For example, the following FROM clauses produce the same source and target vertex sets. While the second FROM clause is more concise, it does not give you access to the intermediate vertex and edge sets.

SELECT x
FROM X:x -(E2>:e2)- Y:y -(<E3:e3)- Z:z -(E4:e4)- U:u; (1)


SELECT u
FROM X:x -(E2>.<E3.E4)- U:u; (2)
1 This FROM clauses uses a longer pattern, but gives you access to y, e2, z and e4.
2 This FROM clauses is more concise than the first FROM clause, but does not give you access to the intermediate vertex and edge sets.

Conjunctive Pattern Matching

The optional repeating phrase ["," pathPattern]* allows you to have multiple path patterns. They form a conjunction, meaning all of them must be satisfied in order to have a valid match result. See Conjunctive Pattern Matching (Beta) for more details.

fromClause := FROM (step | stepV2 | pathPattern ["," pathPattern]*)

Each step pattern or path pattern forms a match table, one row per matching path in the graph. Each vertex alias or edge alias is one column in the table. When we have a conjunctive path, each path must share at least one vertex alias with another path. This enables the two path sets (and match tables) to be joined. Formally, we make the natural join of the two tables.

Vertex and Edge Aliases

Vertex and edge aliases are declared within the FROM clause of a SELECT block, by using the colon :, followed by the alias name. Aliases can be accessed anywhere within the same SELECT block. They are used to reference a single selected vertex or edge of a set. It is through the vertex or edge aliases that the attributes of these vertices or edges can be accessed.

For example, the following code snippets show two different SELECT statements. The first SELECT statement starts from a vertex set called allVertices, and the vertex alias name v can access each individual vertex from allVertices. The second SELECT statement selects a set of edges.It can use the vertex alias s to reference the source vertices, or the alias t to reference the target vertices.

Vertex variables
results = SELECT v FROM all_vertices:v;
results = SELECT t FROM all_vertices:s -()- :t;

The following example shows an edge-based SELECT statement, declaring aliases for all three parts of the edge. In the ACCUM clause, the e and t aliases are assigned to local vertex and edge variables.

Edge variables
results = SELECT v
    FROM all_vertices:s -(:e)- :t
    ACCUM VERTEX v = t, EDGE eg = e;

We strongly suggest that an alias should be declared with every vertex and edge in the FROM clause, as there are several functions and features only available to vertex and edge aliases.

SAMPLE

The SAMPLE clause is an optional clause that selects a uniform random sample from the population of edges or target vertices specified in the FROM argument.

Known issue: The SAMPLE clause is not supported in syntax V2 in 3.7. To use SAMPLE clauses, write your query in syntax V1.

If you want to sample from a set of vertices directly, not from edges or from neighboring (target) vertices, then the following technique is simpler and faster:

Select k random vertices from a vertex set S
random = SELECT s
         FROM S:s
         LIMIT k;

The SAMPLE clause draws from the edge population consisting of those edges which satisfy all three parts — source set, edge type, and target type — of the FROM clause. The SAMPLE clause is intended to provide a representative sample of the distribution of edges (or vertices) connected to hub vertices, instead of dealing with all edges. A hub vertex is a vertex with a relatively high degree.

EBNF for Sample Clause
sampleClause := SAMPLE ( expr | expr "%" ) EDGE WHEN condition (1)
              | SAMPLE expr TARGET WHEN condition              (2)
              | SAMPLE expr "%" TARGET PINNED WHEN condition   (3)
1 Sample an absolute number (or a percentage) of edges for each source vertex.
2 Sample an absolute number of edges incident to each target vertex.
3 Sample a percentage of edges incident to each target vertex.

The expression following SAMPLE specifies the sample size, either an absolute number or a percentage of the population. The expression in a SAMPLE clause must evaluate to a positive integer. There are two sampling methods:

  • Sampling based on edge ID

  • Sampling based on target vertex ID: if a target vertex ID is sampled, all edges from this source vertex to the sampled target vertex are sampled.

Currently, the WHEN condition that can be used with a SAMPLE clause is limited strictly to checking if the result of a function call on a vertex is greater than or greater than/equal to some number.

Given that the sampling is random, some details of each of the example queries may change each time they are run.

The following query displays two modes of sampling: an absolute number of edges from a source vertex and a percentage of edges from a source vertex. We use the Computer_Net graph (see Appendix D). In Computer_Net, there are 31 vertices and 43 edges, but only 7 vertices are source vertices. Moreover, c1, c12, and c23 are hub nodes, with at least 10 outgoing edges each. For the absolute count case, we set the size to 1 edge per source vertex, which is equivalent to a random walk. We expect exactly 7 edges to be selected. For the percentage sampling case, we sample 33% of the edges for vertices which have 3 or more outgoing edges. We expect about 15 edges, but the number may vary.

  • Query

  • Results

SAMPLE based on edges per source vertex
CREATE QUERY sample_ex_3() FOR GRAPH Computer_Net {
    // record each selected edge as (src->tgt)
    MapAccum<STRING,ListAccum<STRING>> @@abs_edges;
    SumAccum<INT> @@total_abs;
    // record each selected edge as (src->tgt)
    MapAccum<STRING,ListAccum<STRING>> @@pct_edges;
    SumAccum<INT> @@total_pct;

    start = {Computer.*};

    // Sample one outgoing edge per source vertex = Random Walk
    abs_sample = SELECT v FROM start:s -(:e)- :v
        SAMPLE 1 EDGE WHEN s.outdegree() >= 1    // sample 1 target vertex from each source vertex
        ACCUM
            @@abs_edges += (s.id -> v.id),
            @@total_abs += 1;
    PRINT @@total_abs, @@abs_edges;

    pct_sample = SELECT v FROM start:s -(:e)- :v
        SAMPLE 33% EDGE WHEN s.outdegree() >= 3  # select ~1/3 of edges when outdegree >= 3
        ACCUM
            @@pct_edges += (s.id -> v.id),
            @@total_pct += 1;
    PRINT @@total_pct, @@pct_edges;
}
sampleEx3.json
RUN QUERY sample_ex_3()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [
    {
      "@@total_abs": 64,
      "@@abs_edges": {
        "c31": ["c23"],
        "c30": ["c23"],
        "c11": [
          "c12",
          "c10"
        ],
        "c10": [
          "c11",
          "c1"
        ],
        "c13": ["c12"],
        "c12": [
          "c13",
          "c14",
          "c21",
          "c16",
          "c19",
          "c17",
          "c18",
          "c22",
          "c20",
          "c15",
          "c11"
        ],
        "c15": ["c12"],
        "c14": [
          "c23",
          "c24",
          "c12"
        ],
        "c17": ["c12"],
        "c16": ["c12"],
        "c19": ["c12"],
        "c18": ["c12"],
        "c20": ["c12"],
        "c22": ["c12"],
        "c21": ["c12"],
        "c24": [
          "c14",
          "c23"
        ],
        "c23": [
          "c29",
          "c31",
          "c27",
          "c26",
          "c25",
          "c24",
          "c28",
          "c30",
          "c14",
          "c4"
        ],
        "c26": ["c23"],
        "c25": ["c23"],
        "c28": ["c23"],
        "c27": ["c23"],
        "c29": ["c23"],
        "c1": [
          "c7",
          "c4",
          "c3",
          "c2",
          "c10",
          "c5",
          "c9",
          "c8",
          "c6"
        ],
        "c2": ["c1"],
        "c3": ["c1"],
        "c4": [
          "c23",
          "c1"
        ],
        "c5": ["c1"],
        "c6": ["c1"],
        "c7": ["c1"],
        "c8": ["c1"],
        "c9": ["c1"]
      }
    },
    {
      "@@total_pct": 64,
      "@@pct_edges": {
        "c31": ["c23"],
        "c30": ["c23"],
        "c11": [
          "c12",
          "c10"
        ],
        "c10": [
          "c11",
          "c1"
        ],
        "c13": ["c12"],
        "c12": [
          "c13",
          "c14",
          "c21",
          "c16",
          "c19",
          "c17",
          "c18",
          "c22",
          "c20",
          "c15",
          "c11"
        ],
        "c15": ["c12"],
        "c14": [
          "c23",
          "c24",
          "c12"
        ],
        "c17": ["c12"],
        "c16": ["c12"],
        "c19": ["c12"],
        "c18": ["c12"],
        "c20": ["c12"],
        "c22": ["c12"],
        "c21": ["c12"],
        "c24": [
          "c14",
          "c23"
        ],
        "c23": [
          "c29",
          "c31",
          "c27",
          "c26",
          "c25",
          "c24",
          "c28",
          "c30",
          "c14",
          "c4"
        ],
        "c26": ["c23"],
        "c25": ["c23"],
        "c28": ["c23"],
        "c27": ["c23"],
        "c29": ["c23"],
        "c1": [
          "c7",
          "c4",
          "c3",
          "c2",
          "c10",
          "c5",
          "c9",
          "c8",
          "c6"
        ],
        "c2": ["c1"],
        "c3": ["c1"],
        "c4": [
          "c23",
          "c1"
        ],
        "c5": ["c1"],
        "c6": ["c1"],
        "c7": ["c1"],
        "c8": ["c1"],
        "c9": ["c1"]
      }
    }
  ]
}

Below is an example of using SELECT to only traverse one edge for each source vertex. The vertex-attached accumulators @times_traversed_no_sample and @times_traversed_with_sample are used to keep track of the number of times an edge is traversed to reach the target vertex. Without using sampling, this occurs once for each edge; thus @times_traversed_no_sample has the same number as the in-degree of the vertex. With sampling edges, the number of edges is restricted. This is reflected in the @times_traversed_with_sample accumulator. Notice the difference in the result set. Because only one edge per source vertex is traversed when the SAMPLE clause is used, not all target vertices are reached. The vertex company3 has 3 incident edges, but in one instance of the query execution, it is never reached. Additionally, company2 has 6 incident edges, but only 4 source vertices sampled an edge incident to company2.

  • Query

  • Results

Example of SAMPLE using an absolute number of edges
CREATE QUERY sample_ex_1() FOR GRAPH Work_Net {
	SumAccum<INT> @times_traversed_no_sample;
	SumAccum<INT> @times_traversed_with_sample;
	workers = {Person.*};

	// the 'before_sample' result set encapsulates the normal functionality of
	// a SELECT statement, where 'times_traversed_no_sample' vertex accumulator is increased for
	// each edge incident to the vertex.
	before_sample = SELECT v FROM workers:t -(:e)- :v
        ACCUM v.@times_traversed_no_sample += 1;

	// The 'after_sample' result set is formed by those vertices which can be
	// reached when for each source vertex, only one edge is used for traversal.
	// This is demonstrated by the values of 'times_traversed_with_sample' vertex accumulator, which
	// is increased for each edge incident to the vertex which is used in the
	// sample.
	after_sample = SELECT v FROM workers:t -(:e)- :v
		      SAMPLE 1 EDGE WHEN t.outdegree() >= 1		// only use 1 edge from the source vertex
		      ACCUM v.@times_traversed_with_sample += 1;

	PRINT before_sample;
	PRINT after_sample;
}
sampleEx1.json
GSQL > RUN QUERY sample_ex_1()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [
    {"before_sample": [
      {
        "v_id": "company2",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "chn",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 2,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 6,
          "id": "company2"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      },
      {
        "v_id": "company4",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "us",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 1,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 1,
          "id": "company4"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      },
      {
        "v_id": "company3",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "jp",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 2,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 3,
          "id": "company3"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      },
      {
        "v_id": "company1",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "us",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 6,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 6,
          "id": "company1"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      },
      {
        "v_id": "company5",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "can",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 1,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 1,
          "id": "company5"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      }
    ]},
    {"after_sample": [
      {
        "v_id": "company2",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "chn",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 2,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 6,
          "id": "company2"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      },
      {
        "v_id": "company4",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "us",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 1,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 1,
          "id": "company4"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      },
      {
        "v_id": "company3",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "jp",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 2,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 3,
          "id": "company3"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      },
      {
        "v_id": "company5",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "can",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 1,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 1,
          "id": "company5"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      },
      {
        "v_id": "company1",
        "attributes": {
          "country": "us",
          "@times_traversed_with_sample": 6,
          "@times_traversed_no_sample": 6,
          "id": "company1"
        },
        "v_type": "Company"
      }
    ]}
  ]
}

Since the PRINT statements are placed at the end of query, the two vertex sets beforeSample and afterSample are almost identical, showing the final values of both accumulators @timesTraversedNoSample and @timesTraversedWithSample. There is one difference: company3 is not included in after_sample because none of the sample-selected edges reached company3.

WHERE

The WHERE clause is an optional clause that constrains edges and vertices specified in the FROM and SAMPLE clauses.

EBNF for WHERE Clause
whereClause := WHERE condition

The WHERE clause uses a boolean condition to test each vertex or edge in the FROM set (or the sampled vertex and edge sets, if the SAMPLE clause was used). If the expression evaluates to false for vertex/edge X, then X is excluded from further consideration in the result set.

The expression may use constants or any variables or parameters within the scope of the SELECT block. The expression may use arithmetic operators, comparison operators, boolean operators, set operators and parentheses to enforce precedence.

The WHERE conditional expression may use any of the variables within its scope (global accumulators, vertex set variables, query input parameters, the FROM clause’s vertex and edge sets (or their vertex and edge aliases), or any of the attributes or accumulators of the vertex/edge sets.) For a more formal explanation of condition, see the EBNF definitions of condition and expr.

Using built-in vertex and edge attributes and functions, such as .type and .neighbors(), the WHERE clause can be used to implement sophisticated selection rules for the edge traversal. In the following example, the selection conditions are completely specified in the WHERE clause, with no edge types or vertex types mentioned in the FROM clause.

WHERE used as a filter
result_set1 = SELECT v FROM S:v-((E1|E2|E3):e)-(V1|V2):t;
result_set2 = SELECT v FROM S:v-(:e)-:t
    WHERE t.type IN ("V1", "V2") AND t IN v.neighbors("E1|E2|E3")

The following examples demonstrate using the WHERE clause to limit the resulting vertex set based on a vertex attribute.

  • Query

  • Results

Basic SELECT WHERE
CREATE QUERY print_cat_posts() FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
	cat_posts = SELECT v FROM Post:v		// select only those post vertices
        WHERE v.subject == "cats";  // which have a subset of 'cats'
	PRINT cat_posts;
}
Results for Query print_cat_posts
GSQL > RUN QUERY print_cat_posts()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"cat_posts": [
    {
      "v_id": "8",
      "attributes": {
        "subject": "cats",
        "post_time": "2011-02-03 17:05:52"
      },
      "v_type": "Post"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "3",
      "attributes": {
        "subject": "cats",
        "post_time": "2011-02-05 01:02:44"
      },
      "v_type": "Post"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "9",
      "attributes": {
        "subject": "cats",
        "post_time": "2011-02-05 23:12:42"
      },
      "v_type": "Post"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "10",
      "attributes": {
        "subject": "cats",
        "post_time": "2011-02-04 03:02:31"
      },
      "v_type": "Post"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "11",
      "attributes": {
        "subject": "cats",
        "post_time": "2011-02-03 01:02:21"
      },
      "v_type": "Post"
    }
  ]}]
}
  • Query

  • Results

SELECT WHERE using IN operator
CREATE QUERY find_graph_focused_posts() FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
	results = SELECT v FROM Post:v					// select only post vertices
		WHERE v.subject IN ("Graph", "tigergraph"); // which have a subject of either 'Graph' or 'tigergraph'
	PRINT results;
}
Results for Query find_graph_focused_posts
GSQL > RUN QUERY find_graph_focused_posts()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"results": [
    {
      "v_id": "1",
      "attributes": {
        "subject": "tigergraph",
        "post_time": "2011-03-03 23:02:00"
      },
      "v_type": "Post"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "6",
      "attributes": {
        "subject": "tigergraph",
        "post_time": "2011-02-05 02:02:05"
      },
      "v_type": "Post"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "5",
      "attributes": {
        "subject": "tigergraph",
        "post_time": "2011-02-06 01:02:02"
      },
      "v_type": "Post"
    }
  ]}]
}

WHERE NOT limitations

The NOT operator may not be used in combination with the .type attribute selector. To check if an edge or vertex type is not equal to a given type, use the != operator. See the example below.

The following example shows the equivalence of using WHERE as a type filter as well as its limitations.

  • Query

  • Results

SELECT statement with WHERE clause using AND/OR
CREATE QUERY find_female_members() FOR GRAPH Social_Net
{

    // Finds female person in the social network. all of the following statements
    // are equivalent (i.e., produce the same results)

	all_vertices = {ANY}; # includes all posts and person
	females = SELECT v FROM all_vertices:v
        WHERE v.type == "Person" AND v.gender != "Male";

	females = SELECT v FROM all_vertices:v
        WHERE v.type == "Person" AND v.gender == "Female";

	females = SELECT v FROM all_vertices:v
        WHERE v.type == "Person" AND
        NOT v.gender == "Male";

	females = SELECT v FROM all_vertices:v
        WHERE v.type != "Post" AND
        NOT v.gender == "Male";

  	/* does not compile. cannot use NOT operator in combination with type attribute
	 females = SELECT v FROM all_vertices:v
		  WHERE NOT v.type   != "Person" AND
		  	    NOT v.gender == "Male";

  	 does not compile. cannot use NOT operator in combination with type attribute
     females = SELECT v FROM all_vertices:v
        WHERE NOT v.type   == "Post" AND
        NOT v.gender == "Male"; */

	person_vertices = {Person.*};
	females = SELECT v FROM person_vertices:v
		   WHERE NOT v.gender == "Male";

	females = SELECT v FROM person_vertices:v
		   WHERE v.gender != "Male";

	females = SELECT v FROM person_vertices:v
		   WHERE v.gender != "Male" AND true;

	females = SELECT v FROM person_vertices:v
		   WHERE v.gender != "Male" OR false;

	PRINT females;
}
Results for Query find_female_members
GSQL > RUN QUERY find_female_members()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"females": [
    {
      "v_id": "person5",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "id": "person5"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person4",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "id": "person4"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person2",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "id": "person2"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

The following example uses edge attributes to determine which workers are registered as full time for any company.

  • Query

  • Results

WHERE using edge attributes
CREATE QUERY full_time_workers() FOR GRAPH Work_Net {
	// find all workers who are full time at some company
    start = {Person.*};
	full_time_workers = SELECT v FROM start:v -(Works_For:e)- Company:t
			WHERE e.full_time;	// full_time is a boolean attribute on the edge

	PRINT full_time_workers;
}
full_time_workers Results
GSQL > RUN QUERY full_time_workers()

{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "edition": "developer",
    "schema": 0,
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"full_time_workers": [
    {
      "v_id": "person4",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": ["football"],
        "skillSet": [ 10, 1, 4 ],
        "skillList": [ 4, 1, 10 ],
        "locationId": "us",
        "interestSet": ["football"],
        "id": "person4"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person11",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": [ "sport", "football" ],
        "skillSet": [10],
        "skillList": [10],
        "locationId": "can",
        "interestSet": [ "football", "sport" ],
        "id": "person11"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person10",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": [ "football", "sport" ],
        "skillSet": [3],
        "skillList": [3],
        "locationId": "us",
        "interestSet": [ "sport", "football" ],
        "id": "person10"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person1",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": [ "management", "financial" ],
        "skillSet": [ 3, 2, 1 ],
        "skillList": [ 1, 2, 3 ],
        "locationId": "us",
        "interestSet": [ "financial", "management" ],
        "id": "person1"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person6",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": [ "music", "art" ],
        "skillSet": [ 10, 7 ],
        "skillList": [ 7, 10 ],
        "locationId": "jp",
        "interestSet": [ "art", "music" ],
        "id": "person6"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person2",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": ["engineering"],
        "skillSet": [ 6, 5, 3, 2 ],
        "skillList": [ 2, 3, 5, 6 ],
        "locationId": "chn",
        "interestSet": ["engineering"],
        "id": "person2"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person8",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": ["management"],
        "skillSet": [ 2, 5, 1 ],
        "skillList": [ 1, 5, 2 ],
        "locationId": "chn",
        "interestSet": ["management"],
        "id": "person8"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person12",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": [
          "music",
          "engineering",
          "teaching",
          "teaching",
          "teaching"
        ],
        "skillSet": [ 2, 5, 1 ],
        "skillList": [ 1, 5, 2, 2, 2 ],
        "locationId": "jp",
        "interestSet": [ "teaching", "engineering", "music" ],
        "id": "person12"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person3",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": ["teaching"],
        "skillSet": [ 6, 1, 4 ],
        "skillList": [ 4, 1, 6 ],
        "locationId": "jp",
        "interestSet": ["teaching"],
        "id": "person3"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person9",
      "attributes": {
        "interestList": [ "financial", "teaching" ],
        "skillSet": [ 2, 7, 4 ],
        "skillList": [ 4, 7, 2 ],
        "locationId": "us",
        "interestSet": [ "teaching", "financial" ],
        "id": "person9"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

If multiple edge types are specified in edge-induced selection, the WHERE clause should use OR to separate each edge type or each target vertex type. For example,

Multiple Edge Type WHERE clause
CREATE QUERY multiple_edge_type_where_ex(VERTEX<Person> m1) FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
    all_user = {m1};
    filtered_user = SELECT s
        FROM all_user:s - ((Posted|Liked|Friend):e) - (Post|Person):t
        // WHERE e.action_time > epoch_to_datetime(1) AND t.gender == "Male";
        WHERE ( e.type == "Liked" AND e.action_time > epoch_to_datetime(1) ) OR
          ( e.type == "Friend" AND t.gender == "Male" );
    PRINT filtered_user;
}

The above query is compilable. However, if we use line 5 as the WHERE clause instead, the query is not compilable. The edge-type conflict checking detects an error, because it uses attributes from both Liked edges and Friend edges without separating them out by OR.

ACCUM

The ACCUM clause enables sophisticated aggregation and other computations across the set of vertices or edges selected by the preceding FROM, SAMPLE, and WHERE clauses.

Syntax

The primary purpose of the ACCUM clause is to collect information about the graph by updating accumulators (via += or =). However, other kinds of statements (e.g., branching, iteration, local assignments) are permitted to support more complex computations or to log activity.

The EBNF syntax below defines the allowable kinds of statements that can occur within an ACCUM clause.

EBNF for ACCUM clause
accumClause := [perClauseV2] ACCUM dmlSubStmtList (1)
dmlSubStmtList := dmlSubStmt ["," dmlSubStmt]*
dmlSubStmt := assignStmt           // Assignment  (2) (3)
            | funcCallStmt         // Function Call
            | gAccumAccumStmt      // Assignment
            | lAccumAccumStmt      // Assignment
            | attrAccumStmt        // Assignment
            | vAccumFuncCall       // Function Call
            | localVarDeclStmt     // Declaration
            | dmlSubCaseStmt       // Control Flow
            | dmlSubIfStmt         // Control Flow
            | dmlSubWhileStmt      // Control Flow
            | dmlSubForEachStmt    // Control Flow
            | BREAK                // Control Flow
            | CONTINUE             // Control Flow
            | insertStmt           // Data Modification
            | dmlSubDeleteStmt     // Data Modification
            | printlnStmt          // Output
            | logStmt              // Output
1 DML-sub-statements do not include global accumulator assignment statement (gAccumAssignStmt) but global accumulator accumulation statement (gAccumAccumStmt). Global accumulators may perform accumulation += but not assignment = within an ACCUM clause.
2 Global variable assignment is permitted in an ACCUM clause, but the change in value will not take place until the query completes. Therefore, if there are multiple assignment statements for the same variable, only the final one will take effect.
3 Vertex attribute assignment = is not permitted in an ACCUM clause. However, edge attribute assignment is permitted. This is because the ACCUM clause iterates over an edge set. Vertex attribute assignment is permitted in the POST-ACCUM clause. Like all updates, the change in value does not take place until the query completes.

Iteration model

The ACCUM clause is executed once for each set of vertices and edges in the graph which match the pattern and constraints given in the FROM and WHERE clauses. You can think of FROM-WHERE as producing a virtual table. The columns of this matching table are the alias variables from the FROM clause pattern, and the rows are each possible set of vertex and edge aliases (e.g. a path) which fit the pattern.

For a simple 1-hop pattern below:

FROM Person:A -(IS_LOCATED_IN:B)- City:C

The above FROM clause produces a match table with 3 columns: A, B, and C. Each row is a tuple (A,B,C) where there is a has_lived_in edge B from a Person vertex A to a City vertex C. We say that the match table provides a binding between the pattern aliases and graph’s vertices and edges. A multi-hop pattern simply has more columns than a 1-hop pattern.

Since the ACCUM clause iterates over edges, and often two edges will connect to the same source vertex or to the same target vertex, the ACCUM clause can be repeated multiple times for one vertex. Operations that are to be performed exactly once per vertex should be performed in the POST-ACCUM clause.

Parallelism in ACCUM clause

TigerGraph uses parallelism to improve performance. The statements within the ACCUM clause are executed sequentially for a given vertex or edge. However, there is no fixed order in which a vertex set or edge set is processed. Any inspection of an intermediate result within the ACCUM clause is incomplete and may not be that meaningful.

Due to the parallel nature of the statements within an ACCUM clause, you cannot reference updated variables within an ACCUM clause since there is no guarantee that the variable was indeed updated when it’s referenced. For example, in the following query, the second statement in the ACCUM clause does not necessarily run after the first statement.

  • Example of incorrect usage

  • Correct example

CREATE QUERY accum_wrong_example() SYNTAX v2 {
    SumAccum<INT> @@count_total;
    SumAccum<INT> @active_flag = 0;

    result = SELECT p
             FROM Person: p - (KNOWS) - Person: w
             WHERE w.lastName == "Wang" AND p.firstName == "Peter"
             ACCUM p.@active_flag += 1,
                   @@count_total += p.@active_flag; (1)
    PRINT @@count_total, result[result.@active_flag];
}
1 This statement does not necessarily occur ofter the previous line.

The correct way to execute the logic is to put the second statement in the POST-ACCUM clause. This guarantees that the second statement executes after the first statement:

CREATE QUERY accum_example() SYNTAX v2 {
    SumAccum<INT> @@count_total;
    SumAccum<INT> @active_flag = 0;

    result = SELECT p
             FROM Person: p - (KNOWS) - Person: w
             WHERE w.lastName == "Wang" AND p.firstName == "Peter"
             ACCUM p.@active_flag += 1
             POST-ACCUM @@count_total += p.@active_flag;
    PRINT @@count_total, result[result.@active_flag];
}

The ACCUM clause iterates through all matches. If you do not have an alias on every vertex in the pattern, then the number of distinct matches may be less than the number of matches.

For example, consider the following clauses:

FROM Person:A -(Knows.Knows)- Person:C
WHERE C.email = "Andy@www.com"
ACCUM C.@pattern_count += 1

This finds the friends of the friends of Andy@www.com. Suppose Andy knows 3 persons (Larry, Moe, and Curly) who know Wendy. The accumulator C.@pattern_count will be incremented 3 times for C = Wendy. This is similar to a SQL SELECT C, COUNT(*) …​ GROUP BY C query. There is no alias for the vertex in the middle of Knows.Knows so the identities of Larry, Moe, and Curly cannot be reported.

Edge/Vertex type inference and conflict

If multiple edge types are specified in an ACCUM clause, each ACCUM statement in the ACCUM clause checks whether edge types are conflicted. If only a subset of edge types are effective in an ACCUM statement, this statement is not executed on other edge types. For example:

Multiple Edge Type ACCUM statement check
CREATE QUERY multiple_edge_type_check_ex (VERTEX<Person> m1) FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
    ListAccum<STRING> @@test_list_1, @@test_list_2, @@test_list_3;
    all_user = {m1};
    all_user = SELECT s
    FROM all_user:s - ((Posted|Liked|Friend):e) - (Post|Person):t
    ACCUM @@test_list_1 += to_string(datetime_to_epoch(e.action_time)),
      @@test_list_2 += t.gender,
      @@test_list_3 += to_string(datetime_to_epoch(e.action_time)) + t.gender (1)
               ;
  PRINT @@test_list_1, @@test_list_2, @@test_list_3;
}
1 This statement causes a compilation error.

In the above example, line 6 is only executed on Liked edges, because action_time is the attribute of liked edge only. Similarly, line 7 is only executed on Friend edges, because gender is the attribute of person only, and only Friend edge uses person as target vertex. However, line 8 causes a compilation error, because it uses multiple edges where some edges cannot be supported in a part of the statement, i.e., liked edges doesn’t have t.gender, Friend edges doesn’t have e.action_time.

We strongly suggest that if multiple edge types are specified in edge-induced selection, ACCUM clauses should use CASE statement to separate the operation on each edge type or each target vertex type (or combination of target vertex type and edge type). The edge-type conflict checking then checks the ACCUM statement inside each THEN/ELSE blocks based on the condition. For example,

Multiple Edge Type ACCUM statement check 2
CREATE QUERY multiple_edge_type_check_ex_2(VERTEX<Person> m1) FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
    ListAccum<STRING> @@test_list1;
    all_user = {m1};
    all_user = SELECT s
        FROM all_user:s - ((Posted|Liked|Friend):e) - (Post|Person):t
        ACCUM CASE
            WHEN e.type == "Liked" THEN    // for Liked edges
                @@test_list1 += to_string(datetime_to_epoch(e.action_time))
            WHEN e.type == "Friend" THEN   // for Friend edges
                @@test_list1 += t.gender
            ELSE      // For the remaining edge type, which is Posted edges
                @@test_list1 += to_string(datetime_to_epoch(t.post_time))
            END;
    PRINT @@test_list1;
}

The above query is compilable. However, if we switch line 8 and line 10, the edge-type conflict checking generates errors because Liked edges doesn’t support t.gender and Friend edges doesn’t support e.action_time.

Examples

This example uses ACCUM to find all the subjects a user posted about.

  • Query

  • Results

Vertex ACCUM Example
CREATE QUERY user_posts() FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
    // For each person, make a list of all their post subjects
    ListAccum<STRING> @person_posts;
    start = {Person.*};

    // Find all user post topics and append them to the vertex list accum
    user_postings = SELECT s FROM start:s -(Posted)- :g
        ACCUM s.@person_posts += g.subject;

  PRINT user_postings;
}
Results for Query user_posts
GSQL > RUN QUERY user_posts()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"user_postings": [
    {
      "v_id": "person7",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": [
          "tigergraph",
          "cats"
        ],
        "id": "person7"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person5",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "@person_posts": [
          "coffee",
          "cats"
        ],
        "id": "person5"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person1",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": ["Graphs"],
        "id": "person1"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person4",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "@person_posts": ["cats"],
        "id": "person4"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person2",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "@person_posts": ["tigergraph"],
        "id": "person2"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person8",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": [
          "cats",
          "Graphs"
        ],
        "id": "person8"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person6",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": [
          "tigergraph",
          "cats"
        ],
        "id": "person6"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person3",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": ["query languages"],
        "id": "person3"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

This example shows each person’s posted vertices and each person’s like behaviors (liked edges).

  • Query

  • Results

ACCUM<VERTEX> and ACCUM<EDGE> Example
CREATE QUERY user_posts_2() FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
    // Show each user's post and liked post time
    ListAccum<VERTEX> @person_posts;
    ListAccum<EDGE> @person_liked_info;
    start = {Person.*};

    // Find all user post topics and append them to the vertex list accum
    user_postings = SELECT s FROM start:s -(Posted)- :g
        ACCUM s.@person_posts += g;

    user_postings = SELECT s from start:s -(Liked:e)- :g
        ACCUM s.@person_liked_info += e;

    PRINT start;
}
Results from Query user_posts2
GSQL > RUN QUERY user_posts2()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"start": [
    {
      "v_id": "person7",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": [
          "6",
          "9"
        ],
        "id": "person7",
        "@person_liked_info": [{
          "from_type": "Person",
          "to_type": "Post",
          "directed": true,
          "from_id": "person7",
          "to_id": "10",
          "attributes": {"action_time": "2010-01-12 11:22:05"},
          "e_type": "Liked"
        }]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person5",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "@person_posts": [
          "4",
          "11"
        ],
        "id": "person5",
        "@person_liked_info": [{
          "from_type": "Person",
          "to_type": "Post",
          "directed": true,
          "from_id": "person5",
          "to_id": "6",
          "attributes": {"action_time": "2010-01-12 21:12:05"},
          "e_type": "Liked"
        }]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person1",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": ["0"],
        "id": "person1",
        "@person_liked_info": [{
          "from_type": "Person",
          "to_type": "Post",
          "directed": true,
          "from_id": "person1",
          "to_id": "0",
          "attributes": {"action_time": "2010-01-11 11:32:00"},
          "e_type": "Liked"
        }]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person4",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "@person_posts": ["3"],
        "id": "person4",
        "@person_liked_info": [{
          "from_type": "Person",
          "to_type": "Post",
          "directed": true,
          "from_id": "person4",
          "to_id": "4",
          "attributes": {"action_time": "2010-01-13 03:16:05"},
          "e_type": "Liked"
        }]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person2",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "@person_posts": ["1"],
        "id": "person2",
        "@person_liked_info": [
          {
            "from_type": "Person",
            "to_type": "Post",
            "directed": true,
            "from_id": "person2",
            "to_id": "0",
            "attributes": {"action_time": "2010-01-12 10:52:15"},
            "e_type": "Liked"
          },
          {
            "from_type": "Person",
            "to_type": "Post",
            "directed": true,
            "from_id": "person2",
            "to_id": "3",
            "attributes": {"action_time": "2010-01-11 16:02:26"},
            "e_type": "Liked"
          }
        ]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person6",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": [
          "5",
          "10"
        ],
        "id": "person6",
        "@person_liked_info": [{
          "from_type": "Person",
          "to_type": "Post",
          "directed": true,
          "from_id": "person6",
          "to_id": "8",
          "attributes": {"action_time": "2010-01-14 11:23:05"},
          "e_type": "Liked"
        }]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person8",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": [
          "8",
          "7"
        ],
        "id": "person8",
        "@person_liked_info": [{
          "from_type": "Person",
          "to_type": "Post",
          "directed": true,
          "from_id": "person8",
          "to_id": "4",
          "attributes": {"action_time": "2010-01-11 03:26:05"},
          "e_type": "Liked"
        }]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person3",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@person_posts": ["2"],
        "id": "person3",
        "@person_liked_info": [{
          "from_type": "Person",
          "to_type": "Post",
          "directed": true,
          "from_id": "person3",
          "to_id": "0",
          "attributes": {"action_time": "2010-01-16 05:15:53"},
          "e_type": "Liked"
        }]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

This example counts the total number of times each topic is used.

  • Query

  • Results

Global ACCUM Example
CREATE QUERY user_posts_by_topic() FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
    //Show number of total posts by topic
    MapAccum<STRING, INT> @@post_topic_counts;
    start = {Person.*};

    // Append subject and update the appearance count in the global map accum
    posts = SELECT g FROM start -(Posted)- :g
        ACCUM @@post_topic_counts += (g.subject -> 1);

    PRINT @@post_topic_counts;
}
Results for Query user_posts_by_topic
GSQL > RUN QUERY user_posts_by_topic()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"@@post_topic_counts": {
    "cats": 5,
    "coffee": 1,
    "Graphs": 2,
    "query languages": 1,
    "tigergraph": 3
  }}]
}

POST-ACCUM

The optional POST-ACCUM clause enables aggregation and other computations across the set of vertices (but not edges) selected by the preceding clauses. POST-ACCUM can be used without ACCUM. If it is preceded by an ACCUM clause, then it can be used for 2-stage accumulative computation: a first stage in ACCUM followed by a second stage in POST-ACCUM.

When you reference a vertex alias in a DML-sub statement in a POST-ACCUM statement, you bind that vertex alias to the POST-ACCUM clause implicitly. You can also explicitly bind a vertex alias with a POST-ACCUM clause by putting the vertex alias in parentheses immediately after the keyword POST-ACCUM. Each POST-ACCUM clause must be bound with one and only one vertex alias.

A SELECT statement can have multiple POST-ACCUM clauses. If you need to run aggregation and other computations by referencing more than one vertex alias, you can use more than one POST-ACCUM clause. Each POST-ACCUM clauses are processed in parallel; it doesn’t matter in what order you write them.

Syntax

EBNF for POST-ACCUM clause
postAccumClause := POST-ACCUM ["(" vertexAlias ")"] dmlSubStmtList
dmlSubStmtList := dmlSubStmt ["," dmlSubStmt]*
dmlSubStmt := assignStmt           // Assignment
            | funcCallStmt         // Function Call
            | gAccumAccumStmt      // Assignment
            | lAccumAccumStmt      // Assignment
            | attrAccumStmt        // Assignment
            | vAccumFuncCall       // Function Call
            | localVarDeclStmt     // Declaration
            | dmlSubCaseStmt       // Control Flow
            | dmlSubIfStmt         // Control Flow
            | dmlSubWhileStmt      // Control Flow
            | dmlSubForEachStmt    // Control Flow
            | BREAK                // Control Flow
            | CONTINUE             // Control Flow
            | insertStmt           // Data Modification
            | dmlSubDeleteStmt     // Data Modification
            | printlnStmt          // Output
            | logStmt              // Output

Iteration model

The ACCUM clause executes for each full path that matches the pattern in the FROM clause. In contrast, the POST-ACCUM clause executes for each vertex in one vertex set; its statements can access the aggregated accumulator result computed in the ACCUM clause.

You can think of the matching result of the FROM clause and the WHERE clause as a virtual table. The columns of this matching table are the alias variables from the FROM clause pattern, and the rows are each possible set of vertex and edge aliases (e.g. a path) which fit the pattern. A POST-ACCUM clause acts like a FOREACH loop on the one of the columns of vertex result set specified in the SELECT clause and only occurs once for each vertex.

If you want to perform per-vertex updates for more than one vertex alias, you should use a separate POST-ACCUM clause for each vertex alias.

For example, below we have three POST-ACCUM clauses.

INTERPRET QUERY () {

    SumAccum<INT> @cnt1;
    SumAccum<INT> @cnt2;
    SumAccum<INT> @@global_t_count;

    R   =  SELECT s
        FROM Person:s-(Likes>) -:msg - (Has_Creator>)-Person:t
        WHERE s.first_name == "Viktor" AND s.last_name == "Akhiezer"
          AND t.last_name LIKE "S%" AND year(msg.creation_date) == 2012
        ACCUM s.@cnt1 +=1 //execute this per match of the FROM pattern.
        POST-ACCUM s.@cnt2 += s.@cnt1 (1)
        POST-ACCUM t.@cnt2 +=1 (2)
        POST-ACCUM(t) @@global_t_count += 1; (3)

        PRINT R [R.first_name, R.last_name, R.@cnt1, R.@cnt2];
}
1 The first one iterates through s, and for each s, we do s.@cnt2 += s.@cnt1.
2 The second POST-ACCUM iterates through t.
3 The third POST-ACCUM also iterates through t, but its DML-sub statements do not reference t. Rather, the POST-ACCUM is bound to t explicitly.

However, the following is not allowed, since it involves two aliases (t and s) in one POST-ACCUM clause.

 POST-ACCUM t.@cnt1 += 1,
            s.@cnt1 += 1

Also, you may not use more than one alias in a single assignment. The following is not allowed:

 POST-ACCUM t.@cnt1 += s.@cnt + 1

Multiple POST-ACCUM clauses

A SELECT statement can have multiple POST-ACCUM clauses. Each POST-ACCUM may refer to only one vertex alias. See the POST-ACCUM section in the Pattern Matching tutorial for more details.

Examples

This is an example of using ACCUM and POST-ACCUM in conjunction. The ACCUM traverses the graph and finds all people who live and work in the same country. After this is determined, POST-ACCUM examines each vertex (person) to see if they work where they live.

  • Query

  • Results

Vertex POST-ACCUM Example
CREATE QUERY resident_employees() FOR GRAPH Work_Net {
    // Show all persons who both work and live in the same country

    ListAccum<STRING> @company;
    OrAccum @works_and_lives;

    start = {Person.*};

    employees = SELECT s FROM start:s -(Works_For)- :c
    // If a person works for a company in the same country where they live, add the company to the list
        ACCUM CASE
            WHEN (s.location_id == c.country) THEN
                s.@company += c.id
            END

    // Check each vertex and see if a person works where they live
        POST-ACCUM CASE
            WHEN (s.@company.size() > 0) THEN
                s.@works_and_lives += TRUE
            ELSE
                s.@works_and_lives += FALSE
            END;

    PRINT employees WHERE (employees.@works_and_lives == TRUE);
}
residentEmployees Result
GSQL > RUN QUERY resident_employees()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"employees": [
    {
      "v_id": "person1",
      "attributes": {
        "skill_set": [
          1,
          2,
          3
        ],
        "skill_list": [
          1,
          2,
          3
        ],
        "@works_and_lives": true,
        "interest_list": [
          "management",
          "financial"
        ],
        "id": "person1",
        "interest_set": [
          "financial",
          "management"
        ],
        "location_id": "us",
        "@company": ["company1"]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person2",
      "attributes": {
        "skill_set": [
          2,
          3,
          5,
          6
        ],
        "skill_list": [
          2,
          3,
          5,
          6
        ],
        "@works_and_lives": true,
        "interest_list": ["engineering"],
        "id": "person2",
        "interest_set": ["engineering"],
        "location_id": "chn",
        "@company": ["company2"]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person11",
      "attributes": {
        "skill_set": [10],
        "skill_list": [10],
        "@works_and_lives": true,
        "interest_list": [
          "sport",
          "football"
        ],
        "id": "person11",
        "interest_set": [
          "football",
          "sport"
        ],
        "location_id": "can",
        "@company": ["company5"]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person10",
      "attributes": {
        "skill_set": [3],
        "skill_list": [3],
        "@works_and_lives": true,
        "interest_list": [
          "football",
          "sport"
        ],
        "id": "person10",
        "interest_set": [
          "sport",
          "football"
        ],
        "location_id": "us",
        "@company": ["company1"]
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

This is an example of a POST-ACCUM only that counts the number of people with a particular gender.

  • Query

  • Results

Global POST-ACCUM Example
CREATE QUERY person_gender(STRING gender) FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
    // Count the number of persons of a given gender
    SumAccum<INT> @@gender_count;

    start = {ANY};

    // Select all person vertices and check the gender attribute
    friends = SELECT v FROM start:v
        WHERE v.type == "Person"
        POST-ACCUM (v) CASE
            WHEN (v.gender == gender) THEN
                @@gender_count += 1
        END;

    PRINT @@gender_count;
}
Results for Query person_gender
GSQL > RUN QUERY person_gender("Female")
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"@@gender_count": 3}]
}

Updating vertex-attached accumulators

Vertices referenced via a vertex-attached accumulator of a selected vertex may have their vertex-attached accumulators updated in the ACCUM clause (but not in the POST-ACCUM clause). That is, a vertex referenced by a selected vertex can be updated, with some limitations explained below. Some examples will help to illustrate this more complex condition.

  • Suppose a query declares a vertex-attached accumulator which holds vertex information. We call this a vertex-holding accumulator. This could take several forms:

    • A scalar accumulator, e.g., MaxAccum< VERTEX > @maxV;

    • A collection accumulator: e.g., ListAccum< VERTEX > @listV;

    • An accumulator containing tuple(s), where the tuple type contains a VERTEX field.

  • If a vertex V is selected, then not only can V’s accumulators be updated, but the vertices stored in its vertex-holding accumulators can also be updated, in the `ACCUM clause.

  • Before these indirectly referenced vertices can be used, they need to be activated. There are two ways to activate an indirect vertex:

    • A vertex from a vertex-holding accumulator is first assigned to a local vertex variable. The vertex can now be updated through the local vertex variable.

ACCUM
  vertex<Person> mx = tgt.@max_v,   # assign to local variable
  mx.@cur_id += src.id      # access via local variable
  • A FOREACH loop can iterate on a vertex-holding collection accumulator. The vertices can now be updated through the loop variable.

ACCUM
  FOREACH vtx IN src.@set_ids DO   # iterate on collection accumulator
      vtx.@cur_id += tgt.id        # access via loop variable
  END

The following uses are NOT supported:

  • Indirectly activated vertices may not be updated in the POST-ACCUM clause or outside a SELECT statement.

  • Passing a vertex into the query as an input parameter is not a route to activation.

  • Using a global vertex-holding accumulator is not a route to activation.

  • If a vertex is being indirectly activated by assigning it to a local variable (e.g., a variable declaring in ACCUM or POST-ACCUM), note the following rule, which always applies to all local variables:

    • A local variable can be declared and initialized in an ACCUM block once. It cannot be declared again or reassigned later in the ACCUM block.

The following query demonstrates updates to indirectly activated vertices.

  • Query

  • Results

Updating an Indirectly-Referenced Vertex
CREATE QUERY v_update_indirect_accum() FOR GRAPH Social_Net {

    SetAccum<vertex<Person>> @posters;
    SetAccum<vertex<Person>> @fellows;

    persons = {Person.*};
    // To each post, attach a list of persons who liked the post
    liked_posts = SELECT p
        FROM persons:src -(Liked:e)- Post:p
        ACCUM
        p.@posters += src;

    // To each person who liked a post, attach a list of everyone
    // who also liked one of this person's liked posts.
    liked_posts = SELECT src
        FROM liked_posts:src
        ACCUM
            FOREACH v IN src.@posters DO
                v.@fellows += src.@posters
            END
        ORDER BY src.subject;

    PRINT persons[persons.@fellows];
}
Results from Query v_update_indirect_accums
GSQL > RUN QUERY v_update_indirect_accums()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"persons": [
    {
      "v_id": "person7",
      "attributes": {"persons.@fellows": ["person7"]},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person5",
      "attributes": {"persons.@fellows": ["person5"]},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person1",
      "attributes": {"persons.@fellows": [
        "person3",
        "person2",
        "person1"
      ]},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person4",
      "attributes": {"persons.@fellows": [
        "person4",
        "person8"
      ]},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person2",
      "attributes": {"persons.@fellows": [
        "person3",
        "person2",
        "person1"
      ]},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person3",
      "attributes": {"persons.@fellows": [
        "person3",
        "person2",
        "person1"
      ]},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person8",
      "attributes": {"persons.@fellows": [
        "person4",
        "person8"
      ]},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person6",
      "attributes": {"persons.@fellows": ["person6"]},
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

PER

The PER clause is an optional prefix to an ACCUM clause, affecting only that clause.

The FROM clause of a SELECT statement produces a match table. The PER clause allows the user to specify that they wish to aggregate the match table, so that there is one row per alias. For more information see the PER Clause section in the Pattern Matching tutorial.

HAVING

The optional HAVING clause provides constraints on the result set of the SELECT statement. The constraints are applied after ACCUM and POST-ACCUM actions. This differs from the WHERE clause, which is applied before the ACCUM and POST-ACCUM actions.

EBNF for HAVING Clause
havingClause := HAVING condition

The condition in a HAVING clause is applied to each vertex in the SELECT set (either source or target vertices) which also fulfilled the FROM and WHERE conditions. The HAVING clause is intended to test one or more of the accumulator variables that were updated in the ACCUM or POST-ACCUM clause, though the condition may be anything that equates to a boolean value. If the condition is false for a particular vertex, then that vertex is excluded from the result set.

The following example demonstrates using the HAVING clause to constrain a result set based on the vertex accumulator variable which was updated during the ACCUM clause.

  • Query

  • Results

The following query finds all persons meeting a given activity threshold, based on how many posts or likes a person has made.

CREATE QUERY active_members (INT activity_threshold) FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
    SumAccum<INT> @activity_amount;
    start = {Person.*};
    result = SELECT v FROM start:v -(:e)- Post:tgt
        ACCUM v.@activity_amount +=1
        HAVING v.@activity_amount >= activity_threshold;
    PRINT result;
}

If the activity_threshold parameter is set to 3, the query returns 5 vertices:

Example 1 Results
GSQL > RUN QUERY active_members(3)
CREATE QUERY active_members (INT activity_threshold) FOR GRAPH Social_Net {
    SumAccum<INT> @activity_amount;
    start = {Person.*};
    result = SELECT v FROM start:v -(:e)- Post:tgt
        ACCUM v.@activity_amount +=1
        HAVING v.@activity_amount >= activity_threshold;
    PRINT result;
}

If the threshold is set to 2, the query would return 8 vertices. If the threshold is set to 4, the query would return no vertices.

The following example demonstrates the equivalence of a SELECT statement in which the condition for the HAVING clause is always true.

  • Query

  • Results

The following query finds all person meeting a given activity threshold, based on how many posts or likes a person has made

Example 2. HAVING with literal condition
CREATE QUERY print_member_activity() FOR GRAPH Social_Net
{
    SumAccum<INT> @activity_amount;
    start = {Person.*};

    /* --- equivalent statements -----
    result = SELECT v FROM start:v -(:e)- Post:tgt
        ACCUM v.@activity_amount +=1
        HAVING true; */

    result = SELECT v FROM start:v -(:e)- Post:tgt
        ACCUM v.@activity_amount +=1;

    PRINT result;
}
Results from Query print_member_activity
GSQL > RUN QUERY print_member_activity()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"result": [
    {
      "v_id": "person7",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@activity_amount": 3,
        "id": "person7"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person5",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "@activity_amount": 3,
        "id": "person5"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person1",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@activity_amount": 2,
        "id": "person1"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person4",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "@activity_amount": 2,
        "id": "person4"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person3",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@activity_amount": 2,
        "id": "person3"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person6",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@activity_amount": 3,
        "id": "person6"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person2",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Female",
        "@activity_amount": 3,
        "id": "person2"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person8",
      "attributes": {
        "gender": "Male",
        "@activity_amount": 3,
        "id": "person8"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

The following shows an example of equivalent result sets from using WHERE vs. HAVING. Recall that the WHERE clause is evaluated before the ACCUM and that the HAVING clause is evaluated after the ACCUM. Both constrain the result set based on a condition that vertices must meet.

  • Query

The query below computes the total post activity for each male person. Because the gender of the vertex does not change, evaluating whether the person vertex is male before the ACCUM clause with WHERE or after the ACCUM clause with HAVING does not change the result. However, if the condition in the HAVING clause could change within the ACCUM clause, these statements would produce different results.

Example 3. HAVING vs. WHERE
CREATE QUERY active_male_members() FOR GRAPH Social_Net
{
    SumAccum<INT> @activity_amount;
    start = {Person.*};
    // The two statements produce equivalent results
    result1 = SELECT v FROM start:v -(:e)- Post:tgt
        WHERE v.gender == "Male"
        ACCUM v.@activity_amount +=1;

    result2 = SELECT v FROM start:v -(:e)- Post:tgt
        ACCUM v.@activity_amount +=1
        HAVING v.gender == "Male";

    PRINT result1[result1.@activity_amount];
    PRINT result2[result2.@activity_amount];
}

--qio0

Results

The following example has a compilation error because the result set is taken from the source vertices, but the HAVING condition is checking the target vertices.

  • Query

  • Results

This query does not compile because the having condition is testing the wrong vertex set

Example 4. HAVING the wrong vertex set
CREATE QUERY print_member_about_cats() FOR GRAPH Social_Net
{
    start = {Person.*};
    result = SELECT v FROM start:v -(:e)- Post:tgt
        HAVING tgt.subject == "cats";
    PRINT result;
}
Compilation Error for printMemberAboutCats
$ gsql printMemberAboutCats.gsql
Semantic Check Error in query printMemberAboutCats (SEM-50): line 8, col 33
The SELECT block selects src, but the HAVING clause uses tgt

ORDER BY

The optional ORDER BY clause sorts the result set.

EBNF for ORDER BY Clause
orderClause := ORDER BY expr [ASC | DESC] ["," expr [ASC | DESC]]*

ASC specifies ascending order, and DESC specifies descending order. If neither is specified, then ascending order is used.

Each expression must refer to the attributes or accumulators of a member of the result set, and the expression must evaluate to a sortable value (e.g., a number or a string).

ORDER BY offers hierarchical sorting by allowing a comma-separated list of expressions, sorting first by the leftmost expr. It uses the next expression only to sort items where the current sort expr results in identical values. Any items in the result set which cannot be sorted (because the sort expressions do not pertain to them) will appear at the end of the set, after the sorted items.

The following example demonstrates the use of ORDER BY with multiple expressions. The returned vertex set is first ordered by the number of friends of the vertex, and then ordered by the number of coworkers of that vertex.

  • Query

  • Results

This query finds the most popular people, sorting first based on the number of friends and then in case of a tie by the number of coworkers

Sort results in descending order
CREATE QUERY top_popular() FOR GRAPH Friend_Net {
	SumAccum<INT> @num_friends;
	SumAccum<INT> @num_coworkers;
	start = {Person.*};

	result = SELECT v FROM start -((Friend|Coworker):e)- Person:v
      ACCUM CASE
          WHEN e.type == "Friend" THEN v.@num_friends += 1
          WHEN e.type == "Coworker" THEN v.@num_coworkers += 1
      END
      ORDER BY v.@num_friends DESC, v.@num_coworkers DESC;

	PRINT result;
}
RUN QUERY top_popular()
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"result": [
    {
      "v_id": "person9",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 5,
        "@num_coworkers": 3,
        "id": "person9"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person12",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 4,
        "@num_coworkers": 1,
        "id": "person12"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person8",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 4,
        "@num_coworkers": 1,
        "id": "person8"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person6",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 3,
        "@num_coworkers": 4,
        "id": "person6"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person1",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 3,
        "@num_coworkers": 3,
        "id": "person1"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person4",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 2,
        "@num_coworkers": 5,
        "id": "person4"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person2",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 2,
        "@num_coworkers": 3,
        "id": "person2"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person3",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 2,
        "@num_coworkers": 3,
        "id": "person3"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person10",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 2,
        "@num_coworkers": 1,
        "id": "person10"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person7",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 1,
        "@num_coworkers": 6,
        "id": "person7"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person5",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 1,
        "@num_coworkers": 5,
        "id": "person5"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person11",
      "attributes": {
        "@num_friends": 1,
        "@num_coworkers": 1,
        "id": "person11"
      },
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

LIMIT

The optional LIMIT clause sets constraints on the number and ranking of items included in the final result set.

EBNF for LIMIT Clause
limitClause := LIMIT ( expr | expr "," expr | expr OFFSET expr )

Each of the expression must evaluate to a non-negative integer. To understand LIMIT, note that the tentative result set is held in the computer as a list of vertices. If the query has an ORDER BY clause, the order is specified; otherwise the list order is unknown. Assume we number the vertices as v_1 , v_2 , …​, v_n. The LIMIT clause specifies a range of vertices, starting from a lower position in the list to an upper position.

There are three forms:

LIMIT scenarios
result = SELECT v FROM S -(:e)- :v LIMIT k; (1)
result = SELECT v FROM S -(:e)- :v LIMIT j, k; (2)
result = SELECT v FROM S -(:e)- :v LIMIT k OFFSET j; (3)
1 Case 1: k = Count
2 Case 2: j = Offset from the start of the list, k = Count
3 Case 3: k = Count, j = Offset from the start of the list

Case 1: LIMIT k

  • When a single expr is provided, LIMIT returns the first k elements from the tentative result set. If there are fewer than k elements available, then all elements will be returned in the result set. If k=5 and the tentative result set has at least 5 items, then the final result list will be [ v_1 , v_2 , v_3 , v_4 , v_5 ].

Case 2: LIMIT j, k

  • When a comma separates two expressions, LIMIT treats the first expression j as an offset. That is, it skips the first j items in the list. The second expr k tells the maximum number of items to include. If the list has at least 7 items, then LIMIT 2, 5 would return [ v_3 , v_4 , v_5, v_6 , v_7 ].

Case 3: LIMIT k OFFSET j

  • The behavior of Case 3 is the same as that of Case 2, except that the syntax is different. The keyword OFFSET separates the two expressions, and the count comes before the offset, rather than vice versa. If the list has at least 7 items, then LIMIT 5 OFFSET 2 would return [ v_3 , v_4 , v_5, v_6 , v_7 ].

If any of the expressions evaluate to a negative integer, the results are undefined.

OFFSET is intended for result sets which are in a known order. It is a compile-time error to use OFFSET without the ORDER BY clause.

The following examples demonstrate the various forms of the LIMIT clause.

The first example shows the LIMIT clause when used as an upper limit. It returns a result set with a maximum size of 4 elements in the set.

  • Query

  • Results

limitEx1.gsql: LIMIT by some number
CREATE QUERY limit_ex_1 (INT k) FOR GRAPH Friend_Net {
    start = {Person.*};

    result1 = SELECT v FROM start:v
      ORDER BY v.id
      LIMIT k;

    PRINT result1[result1.id]; // api v2
}
limit_ex_1.json Results
RUN QUERY limit_ex_1(4)
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"result1": [
    {
      "v_id": "person1",
      "attributes": {"result1.id": "person1"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person10",
      "attributes": {"result1.id": "person10"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person11",
      "attributes": {"result1.id": "person11"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person12",
      "attributes": {"result1.id": "person12"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

The following example shows how to use the LIMIT clause with an offset.

  • Query

  • Results

LIMIT with lower-bound and size
CREATE QUERY limit_ex_2 (INT j, INT k) FOR GRAPH Friend_Net
{
    start = {Person.*};
    result2 = SELECT v FROM start:v
      ORDER BY v.id
      LIMIT j, k;

    PRINT result2[result2.id]; // api v2
}
limit2Ex.json Results
RUN QUERY limit_ex_2(2,3)
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"result2": [
    {
      "v_id": "person11",
      "attributes": {"result2.id": "person11"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person12",
      "attributes": {"result2.id": "person12"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person2",
      "attributes": {"result2.id": "person2"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}

The following example shows the alternative syntax for a result size limit with an offset. This time we try larger values for offset and size. In a large data set, limitTest(5,20) might return 20 vertices, but since we don’t have 25 vertices in the original data, the output is fewer than 20 vertices.

  • Query

  • Results

limit_ex_3.gsql: LIMIT with OFFSET
CREATE QUERY limit_ex_3 (INT j, INT k) FOR GRAPH Friend_Net {
    start = {Person.*};

    result3 = SELECT v FROM start:v
      ORDER BY v.id
      LIMIT k OFFSET j;

    PRINT result3[result3.id]; // api v2
}
limit_ex_3.json Results
RUN QUERY limit_ex_3(5,20)
{
  "error": false,
  "message": "",
  "version": {
    "schema": 0,
    "edition": "enterprise",
    "api": "v2"
  },
  "results": [{"result3": [
    {
      "v_id": "person3",
      "attributes": {"result3.id": "person3"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person4",
      "attributes": {"result3.id": "person4"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person5",
      "attributes": {"result3.id": "person5"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person6",
      "attributes": {"result3.id": "person6"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person7",
      "attributes": {"result3.id": "person7"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person8",
      "attributes": {"result3.id": "person8"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    },
    {
      "v_id": "person9",
      "attributes": {"result3.id": "person9"},
      "v_type": "Person"
    }
  ]}]
}